CSE Mains : Optional Engg. Subject

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; Circuit analysis methods : nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks.

Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals and systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission lines : travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart.

Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits : Clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers : single and multi-stage, differential, operational feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators : criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Linear and switching power supplies.

Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits : arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines : characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors. Transformers : principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines : characteristics and performance analysis; speed control.

Semi-conductor power devices : diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters : fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DC-DC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable-speed drives.

Random variables : continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise : white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation : Amplitude modulation : DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation : PM & FM signals; narrows band FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, De-emphasis, Pre-emphasis. CW modulation system : Super-hetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation or AM and FM receivers.

Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems : time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability : Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bode-plots and polar plots, Nyquist’s criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of control systems.

PC organisation; CPU, instruction set, register settiming diagram, programming, interrupts, memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices.

Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers : thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric crystal.

Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concepts of system stability : swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission.

Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit brakers. Computer aided protection : introduction; line, bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection.

Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes : amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding : error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolution codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.

**1..1 Engineering Mechanics :**

Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non- Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.

First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia.

Static Friction.

Kinematics and Kinetics: Kinematics in cartesian Co-ordinates, motion under uniform and non-uniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle : Momentum and Energy principles, collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies.

**1.2 Strength of Materials :**

Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength.

Deflection of beams: Mecaulay’s method, Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s, Rankine’s and Secant formulae.

**1.3 Structural Analysis :**

Castiglianio’s theorems I and II, unit load method, of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection, moment distribution.

Rolling loads and Influences lines : Influences lines for Shear Force and Bending moment at a section of a beam. Criteria for maximum shear force and bending Moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses.

Arches: Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature effects.

Matrix methods of analysis: Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.

Plastic Analysis of beams and frames: Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statistical method, Mechanism method.

Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and Principal axes, calculation of bending stresses.

**2.1 Structural Steel Design :**

Structural steel : Factors of safety and load factors. Riveted, bolted and welded joints and connections. Design of tension and compression members, beams of built up section, riveted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stancheons with battens and lacings.

**2.2 Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures :**

Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete : Working Stress and Limit State method of design— Recommendations of I. S. codes. Design of one way and two way slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity.

Cantilever and Counter fort type retaining walls.

Water tanks : Design requirements for Rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground.

Prestressed Concrete : Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.

Design of brick masonry as per I. S. Codes

**3.1 Fluid Mechanics :**

Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces.

Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow : Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions.

Continuity, momentum, energy equation, Navier Stokes equation, Euler’s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, sluice gates, weirs.

**3.2 Dimensional Analysis and Similitude:**

Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters.

**3.3 Laminar Flow :**

Laminar flow between parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow through tube.

**3.4 Boundary layer :**

Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sub-layer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift.

Turbulent flow through pipes : Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line.

**3.5 Open Channel Flow :**

Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jump, gradually varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation.

**3.6 Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower :**

Hydraulic turbines, types classification, Choice of turbines performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed.

Principles of hydropower development.

Soil Type and Structure—gradation and particle size distribution—consistency limits.

Water in soil—capillary and structural—effective stress and pore water pressure—permeability concept—filed and laboratory determination of permeability—Seepage pressure—quick sand conditions—Shear strength determination—Mohr Coulomb concept.

Compaction of soil—Laboratory and filed test.

Compressibility and consolidation concept— consolidation theory—consolidation settlement analysis.

Earth pressure theory and analysis for retaining walls, Application for sheet piles and Braced excavation

Bearing capacity of soil—approaches for analysis- Filed tests—settlement analysis—stability of slope of earth walk.

Subsurface exploration of soils—methods

Foundation—Type and selection criteria for foundation of structures—Design criteria for foundation—Analysis of distribution of stress for footings and pile—pile group action—pile load test.

Ground improvement techniques.

**1.1 Construction Technology:**

Engineering Materials :

Physical properties of construction materials with respect to their use in construction—Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement, different types of Mortars and Concrete.

Specific use of ferro cement, fibre reinforced C. C., High stength concrete.

Timber; Properties defects—common preservation treatments.

Use and selection of materials for specific use like Low Cost Housing, Mass Housing, High Rise Buildings.

**1.2 Construction :**

Masonry principles using Brick, stone, Blocks—construction detailing and strength characteristics.

Types of plastering, pointing, flooring, roofing and construction features. Common repairs in buildings.

Principle of functional planning of building for residents and specific use—Building code provisions.

Basic principles of detailed and approximate estimating—specification writing and rate analysis-principles of valuation of real property.

Machinery for earthwork, concreting and their specific uses—Factors affecting selection of equipments—operating cost of equipments.

**1.3 CONSTRUCTION PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT :**

Construction activity—schedules—organization for construction industry—Quality assurance principles.

Use Basic principle of network—analysis in form of CPM and PERT—their use in construction monitoring, Cost optimization and resource allocation.

Basic principles of Economic analysis and methods.

Project profitability—Basic principles of Boot approach to financial planning-simple toll fixation criterions.

**2.1 Surveying :** Common methods and instruments for distance and angle measurement for CE work—their use in plane table, traverse survey, levelling work, triangulation, contouring and topographical map.

Basic principles of photogrammetry and remote sensing.

**2.2 Railways Engineering :** Permanent way—components, types and their function-Functions and Design constituents of turn and crossing— Necessity of geometric design of track—Design of station and yards.

**2.3 Highway Engineering :**

Principles of Highway alignments—classification and geometrical design elements and standards for Roads.

Pavement structure for flexible and rigid pavements—Design principles and methodology of pavements.

Typical construction methods and standards of materials for stabilized soil, WBM, Bituminous works and CC roads.

Surface and sub-surface drainge arrangements for roads—culvert structures.

Pavement distresses and strengthening by overlays.

Traffic surveys and their application in traffic planning—Typical design features for channelized, intersection rotary etc.—signal designs—standard Traffic signs and markings.

**3.1 Hydrology :**

Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, infiltration, overland flow, hydrograph, flood frequency analyses, flood routing through a reservoir, channel flow routing—Muskingam method.

**3.2 Ground Water flow :**

Specific yield, storage coefficient, coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined aquifers, aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions.

**3.3 Water Resources Engineering :**

Ground and surface water resources, single and multipurpose projects, storage capacity of reservoirs, reservoir losses, reservoir sedimentation.

**3.4 Irrigation Engineering :**

(i) Water requirements of crops : consumptive use, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies.

(ii) Canals : Distribution systems for cannal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, alignment of main and distributory canals, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load.

(iii) Water logging : causes and control, salinity.

(iv) Canal structures : Design of head regulators, canal falls, aqueducts, metering flumes and canal outlets.

(v) Diversion head work : Principles and design of weirs on permeable and impermeable foundation, Khosla’s theory, energy dissipation.

(vi) Storage works : Types of dams, design, principles of rigid gravity stability analysis.

(vii) Spillways : Spillway types, energy dissipation.

(viii) River training : Objectives of river training, methods of river training.

**4.1 Water Supply :**

Predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.

**4.2 Intake of Water :**

Water treatment: principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow-, rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity.

**4.3 Sewerage Systems :**

Domestic and industrial wastes, store sewage—separate and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers.

**4.4 Sewage Characterisation :**

BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.

**4.5 Sewage Treatment :**

Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.

**4.6 Solid waste :**

Collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts, management of long-term ill-effects.

**4.7 Environmental pollution :**

Sustainable development. Radioactive wastes and disposal. Environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects. Air pollution. Pollution control acts.

**1.1 Mechanics of Rigid Bodies :**

Equations of equilibrium in space and its application; first and second moments of area; simple problems on friction; kinematics of particles for plane motion; elementary particle dynamics.

**1.2 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies :**

Generalized Hooke’s law and its application; design problems on axial stress, shear stress and bearing stress; material properties for dynamic loading; bending shear and stresses in beams; determination of principle stresses and strains-analytical and graphical; compound and combined stresses; bi-axial stresses-thin walled pressure vessel; material behaviour and design factors for dynamic load; design of circular shafts for bending and torsional load only; deflection of beam for statically determinate problems; theories of failure.

Basic concepts on structure of solids, common ferrous and non-ferrous materials and their applications; heat-treatment of steels; non-metalsplastics, cermics, composite materials and nano-materials.

Kinematic and dynamic analysis of plane mechanisms. Cams, Gears and empicyclie gear trains, flywheels, governors, balancing of rigid rotors, balancing of single and multi-cylinder engines, linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems (single degree of freedom), Critical speeds and whirling of shafts.

**4.1 Manufacturing Process:**

Machine tool engineering - Merhant’s force analysis: Taylor’s tool life equation; conventional machining; NC and CNC machining process; jigs and fixtures.

Non-conventional machining-EDM, ECM, ultrasonic, water jet machining etc.; application of lasers and plasmas; energy rate calculations.

Forming and welding processes-standard processes.

Metrology-concept of fits and tolerances; tools and guages; comparators; inspection of length; position; profile and surface finish.

**4.2 Manufacturing Management :**

System design: factory location—simple OR models; plant layout-methods based; applications of engineering economic analysis and break-even analysis for product selection, process selection and capacity planning; predetermined time standards.

System planning; forecasting methods based on regression and decomposition, design and balancing of multi model and stochastic assembly lines; inventory management-probabilistic inventory models for order time and order quantity determination; JIT systems; strategic sourcing; managing inter plant logistics.

System operations and control: Scheduling algorithms for job shops; applications of statistical methods for product and process quality control applications of control charts for mean, range, percent defective, number of defectives and defects per unit; quality cost systems; management of resources, organizations and risks in projects.

System improvement: Implementation of systems, such as total quality management, developing and managing flexible, lean and agile Organizations.

1.1 Basic concept of First-law and Second law of Thermodynamics; concept of entropy and reversibility; availability and unavailability and irreversibility.

1.2 .Classification and properties of fluids; incompressible and compressible fluids flows; effect of Mach number and compressibility; continuity momentum and energy equations; normal and oblique shocks; one dimensional isentropic flow; flow or fluids in duct with frictions that transfer.

1.3 Flow through fans, blowers and compressors; axial and centrifugal flow configuration; design of fans and compressors; single problems compresses and turbine cascade; open and closed cycle gas turbines; work done in the gas turbine; reheat and regenerators.

2.1 Conduction heat transfer—general conduction equation-Laplace, Poisson and Fourier equations; Fourier law of conduction; one dimensional steady state heat conduction applied to simple wall, solid and hollow cylinder and spheres.

2.2 Convection heat transfer—Newton’s law of convection; free and forces convection; heat transfer during laminar and turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid over a flat plate; concepts of Nusselt number, hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer their thickness; Prandtl number; analogy between heat and momentum transfer—Reynolds, Colbum, Prandtl analogies; heat transfer during laminar and turbulent flow through horizontal tubes; free convection from horizontal and vertical plates.

2.3 Black body radiation—basic radiation laws such as Stefan-boltzman, Planck distribution, Wein’s displacement etc.

2.4 Basic heat exchanger analysis; classification of heat exchangers.

3.1 Classification, thermodynamic cycles of operation; determination of break power, indicated power, mechanical efficiency, heat balance sheet, interpretation of performance characteristics, petrol, gas and diesel engines.

3.2 Combustion in SI and CI engines, normal and abnormal combustion; effect of working parameters on knocking, reduction of knocking; Forms of combustion chamber for SI and CI engines; rating of fuels; additives; emission.

3.3 Different systems of IC engines-fuels; lubricating; cooling and transmission systems. Alternate fuels in IC engines.

4.1 Steam generation—modified Ranking cycle analysis; Modern steam boilers; steam at critical and supercritical pressures; draught equipment; natural and artificial draught; boiler fuels solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. Steam turbines—Principle; types; compounding; impulse and reaction turbines; axial thrust.

4.2 Steam nozzles—flow of steam in convergent and divergent nozzle pressure at throat for maximum discharge with different initial steam conditions such as wet, saturated and superheated, effect of variation of back pressure; supersaturated flow of steam in nozzles, Wilson line.

4.3 Rankine cycle with internal and external irreversibility; reheat factor; reheating and regeneration, methods of governing; back pressure and pass out turbines.

4.4 Steam power plants—combined cycle power generation; heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) fired and unfired, co-generation plants.

5.1 Vapour compression refrigeration cycle - cycle on p-H & T-s diagrams; ecofriendly refrigerants—R 134a. 123; Systems like evaporators, condensers, compressor, expansion devices. Simple vapour absorption systems.

5.2 Psychrometry- properties; processes; charts; sensible heating and cooling; humidification and dehumidification effective temperature; air-conditioning load calculation; simple duct design.